Mathematics has been studied at Cambridge for a long time. The first figure of note is Robert Recorde (born about 1550) who is credited with the invention of the equality sign "=". You can read about the history of the Faculty here.

There are two departments within the Faculty of Mathematics:

- Department of Applied Mathematics & Theoretical Physics (DAMTP)
- Department of Pure Mathematics & Mathematical Statistics (DPMMS).

The Statistical Laboratory is a sub-department of the DPMMS. The Departments are located at the Centre for Mathematical Sciences (CMS), which is also the location of the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences (INI), a national and international visitor research institute.

The Mathematical Tripos is the name given to the undergraduate mathematics course. As with most other undergraduate courses in Cambridge, lectures are provided centrally by the Faculty while supervisions (small group teaching) are provided by the 31 individual Colleges of the University. The colleges also handle admissions.

Postgraduate courses: Postgraduate Study in Mathematics at Cambridge includes the Master of Mathematics / Master of Advanced Study which is a a one-year taught course similar to a Master's course. For historical reasons it is also known as 'Part III of the Mathematical Tripos'. There is also the Cambridge Centre for Analysis, an EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training, which offers a PhD course in Mathematical Analysis, several one-year MPhil courses and PhD programmes.